Korean Society For Cognitive and Biological Psychology
[ Article ]
The Korean Journal of Cognitve & Biological Psychology - Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.69-95
ISSN: 1226-9654 (Print)
Print publication date 30 Apr 2018
Received 08 Feb 2018 Revised 17 Apr 2018 Accepted 20 Apr 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22172/cogbio.2018.30.2.001

과제와 환경의 제약이 다트 던지는 동작에 미치는 영향

임용현 ; 김남균
경북대학교 의과대학 신경과학교실
계명대학교 심리학과
Effects of task and environmental constraints on postural control in dart throwing
Yong-Hyun Lim ; Nam-Gyoon Kim
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University
Department of Psychology, Keimyung University

Correspondence to: 김남균, 계명대학교 심리학과, (42601) 대구광역시 달서구 달구벌대로 1095 Tel: 053-580-5415, E-mail:  nk70@kmu.ac.kr


본 연구에서는 다트 던지는 동작이 자세유지 체계와 어떻게 협응을 이루는지 두 개의 실험을 실시하여 검증하였다. 실험 1에서는 Fitts 법칙에 따라 표적과의 거리를 이용하여 과제 난이도를 변화시켰으며, 실험 2에서는 지지면의 재질과 크기(나무 바닥, 고무판, 좁은 목재보)를 변화시켜 자세 유지를 교란하여 다트 던지는 동작과의 상호작용을 유도하였다. 실험의 조작이 다트 던지는 동작과 자세유지에 미치는 영향을 수행 결과, 운동 패턴 및 흔들림 정도로 나누어 분석하였다. 수행 결과는 반경오차, 가변오차 및 수행점수로 분석하였으며, 운동 패턴은 운동추적기의 센서로 수집한 시계열 자료로부터 추출한 관절(손목, 팔꿈치, 어깨, 엉덩이, 무릎, 발목)의 각도 변화 값들을 상호 비교한 교차상관 분석값들을 사용하여 분석하였다. 마지막으로 신체의 흔들림 정도는 머리의 앞뒤 및 좌우 흔들림, 어깨의 앞뒤 및 좌우 흔들림 정도를 운동시간 동안 센서의 움직인 거리를 표준편차로 변환한 값을 사용하여 분석하였다. 실험 결과 운동통제 체계가 과제의 변화로 주어진 제약(더 빠른 가속력)이나 환경의 변화로 주어진 제약(자세유지의 어려움)에 대처하여 다분절 운동 사슬을 기능적으로 재구성하여 역동적으로 대처한다고 결론 내렸다.


Two experiments were directed at postural coordination in dart throwing. Darts can be thrown using only the elbow and wrist while keeping the rest of the body stationary. In order to introduce variability in the coordination pattern, distances to the target (Experiment 1), and the characteristics of support surface (Experiment 2) were varied. Dart throwing data were obtained using a wireless motion tracking system via sensors attached to the index finger, wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle of the right side (the throwing hand) with additional sensors attached to the head and the left shoulder, for a total of 9 sensors. Cross-correlations between joints (wrist-elbow, wrist-shoulder, wrist-hip, wrist-knee, wrist-ankle, elbow-shoulder, elbow-hip, elbow-knee, elbow-ankle, shoulder-hip, shoulder-knee, shoulder-ankle, hip-knee, hip-ankle, and knee-ankle) were used to construct coordination patterns. The standard deviations of the head and the right shoulder motion were used to assess body sway. In each condition of target distance (Experiment 1) and support surface (Experiment 2), participants threw darts 20 times, preceded by 20 practice throws. Different patterns of coordination arose as a function of target distance and support surface. Coupling strengths between joints were rearranged to cope with different demands imposed by different task constraints. Of particular interest was the finding that body sway was minimal in the narrow beam condition, less than in the wide plank or yoga mattress condition. Results suggest that the motor control system accomplishes a goal-directed movement by reassembling the multijoint kinematic chain dynamically under different task constraints.


Dart throwing, Mulitijoint kinematic chain, Coordination, Cross-correlation, Postural control


다트 던지기, 다분절 운동 사슬, 협응, 교차상관분석, 자세유지


본 논문은 제1저자의 박사학위논문을 일부 수정하여 작성되었다. 본 논문은 2014년 정부(교육부)의 재원으로 한국연구재단의 지원을 받아 수행되었다(NRF-2014S1A5A2A01015400).


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